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影響鋁合金性能的元素是什么

來源:http://www.fuzore.com  發布時間:2019-04-29 11:45:28  

  在生產實踐中,可根據產品的合金成分、品種、規格、用途、數量與質量要求、市場需求,以及設備配置與國情等具體條件來選擇合適的生產方法。
  In production practice, suitable production methods can be selected according to the specific conditions of alloy composition, variety, specification, use, quantity and quality requirements, market demand, equipment configuration and national conditions.
  鋁合金管按擠壓方式分:無縫鋁管,和普通擠壓管鋁合金管按厚度分:普通鋁管和薄壁鋁管 性能:耐腐蝕、重量輕。
  Aluminum alloy tubes can be divided into seamless aluminium tubes according to extrusion mode, and aluminium alloy tubes can be divided into ordinary aluminium tubes and Thin-walled Aluminium tubes according to thickness: corrosion resistance and light weight.
  鋁合金管廣泛用于各行各業,如:汽車、輪船、航天、航空、電器、農業、機電、家居等,鋁管于我們的生活已經無處不在。
  Aluminum alloy tubes are widely used in all walks of life, such as automobiles, ships, aerospace, aviation, electrical appliances, agriculture, electromechanical, household and so on. Aluminum tubes are everywhere in our life.
  鋁合金管按外形分:方管、圓管、花紋管、異型管鋁合金管按精度分:普通鋁管和精密鋁管,其中精密鋁管一般需要在擠壓后進行再加工,如冷拉精抽,軋制。
  Aluminum alloy tubes are divided into square tubes, circular tubes, pattern tubes and special-shaped tubes according to their accuracy: ordinary aluminium tubes and precise aluminium tubes. Among them, precise aluminium tubes need to be reprocessed after extrusion, such as cold drawing, fine drawing and rolling.
  影響鋁合金性能的八大元素有:釩、鈣、鉛、錫、鉍、銻、鈹及鈉等金屬元素,根據成品用途不一樣,在加工過程中所加入的元素由于熔點高低不一,結構不同,與鋁形成的化合物也不同,因而對于鋁合金性能的影響也不一樣。
  The eight major elements affecting the properties of aluminium alloys are: vanadium, calcium, lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, beryllium and sodium. According to the different uses of finished products, the elements added in the process of processing are different because of the different melting points, different structures and the compounds formed by aluminium, so the effects on the properties of aluminium alloys are also different.
  1、金屬元素:銅元素的影響
  1. Metal Elements: The Effect of Copper Elements銅是重要的合金元素,有一定的固溶強化效果,此外時效析出的CuAl2有著顯著的時效強化效果。鋁板中銅含量通常在2.5%-5%,銅含量在4%-6.8%時強化效果較好,所以大部門硬鋁合金的含銅量處于這范圍。
  Copper is an important alloy element, which has a certain solid solution strengthening effect. In addition, CuAl2 precipitated during aging has a significant aging strengthening effect. The copper content in aluminium sheet is usually 2.5% - 5%, and the copper content is 4% - 6.8%. Therefore, the copper content of most hard aluminium alloys is in this range.
  2、金屬元素:硅元素的影響
  2. Metal Elements: The Effect of Silicon ElementsAl-Mg2Si合金系合金平衡相圖Mg2Si在鋁中的較大溶解度為1.85%,且隨溫度的降低而減速小,變形鋁合金中,硅單獨加入鋁板中只限于焊接材料,硅加入鋁中亦有一定的強化作用。
  The maximum solubility of Mg2Si in Al-Mg2Si alloy equilibrium phase diagram is 1.85%, and decreases with the decrease of temperature. In deformed aluminum alloy, the addition of silicon to aluminum plate is limited to welding materials, and the addition of silicon to aluminum also has a certain strengthening effect.
  3、金屬元素:鎂元素的影響
  3. Metal Elements: The Effect of Magnesium鎂對鋁的強化是顯著的,每增加1%鎂,抗拉強度大約升高34MPa。假如加入1%以下的錳,可能增補強化作用。因此加錳后可降低鎂含量,同時可降低熱裂傾向,另外錳還可以使Mg5Al8化合物平均沉淀,改善抗蝕性和焊接機能。
  Magnesium strengthens aluminium remarkably. The tensile strength increases by about 34 MPa for every 1% increase of magnesium. If less than 1% manganese is added, the strengthening effect may be added. Therefore, manganese can reduce magnesium content and hot cracking tendency. In addition, manganese can also make Mg5Al8 compound precipitate averagely, improve corrosion resistance and welding function.
  4、金屬元素:錳元素的影響
  4. Metal Elements: The Effect of Manganese錳在固溶體中的較大溶解度為1.82%。合金強度隨溶解度增加不斷增加,錳含量為0.8%時,延伸率達較大值。Al-Mn合金長短時效硬化合金,即不可熱處理強化。
  The maximum solubility of manganese in solid solution is 1.82%. The strength of the alloy increases with the increase of solubility. When the content of manganese is 0.8%, the elongation reaches the maximum. Al-Mn alloy can harden for long and short time, i.e. it can not be strengthened by heat treatment.

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  5、金屬元素:鋅元素的影響
  5. Metal Elements: The Effect of Zinc
  Al-Zn合金系平衡相圖275鋅在鋁中的溶解度為31.6%,而在125時其溶解度則下降到5.6%。鋅單獨加入鋁中,在變形前提下對鋁合金強度的進步十分有限,同時存在應力侵蝕開裂、傾向,因而限制了它的應用。
  The solubility of zinc in aluminium in equilibrium phase figure 275 of Al-Zn alloy system is 31.6%, while it decreases to 5.6% at 125. When zinc is added to aluminium alone, the progress of strength of aluminium alloy is limited under the condition of deformation. At the same time, stress corrosion cracking and tendency exist, which limits its application.
  6、金屬元素:鐵和硅的影響
  6. Metal Elements: Effects of Iron and Silicon鐵在Al-Cu-Mg-Ni-Fe系鍛鋁合金中,硅在Al-Mg-Si系鍛鋁中和在Al-Si系焊條及鋁硅鍛造合金中,均作為合金元素加的,在其它鋁合金中,硅和鐵是常見的雜質元素,對合金機能有顯著的影響。它們主要以FeCl3和游離硅存在。在硅大于鐵時,形成β-FeSiAl3(或Fe2Si2Al9)相,而鐵大于硅時,形成α-Fe2SiAl8(或Fe3Si2Al12)。當鐵和硅比例不當時,會引起鑄件產生裂紋,鑄鋁中鐵含量過高時會使鑄件產生脆性。
  In Al-Cu-Mg-Ni-Fe forged aluminium alloys, silicon is added as alloying elements in Al-Mg-Si forged aluminium alloys, Al-Si welding rods and Al-Si forged alloys. Among other aluminium alloys, silicon and iron are common impurity elements, which have a significant effect on the function of the alloys. They mainly exist in FeCl3 and free silicon. When silicon is larger than iron, the phase of beta-FeSiAl3 (or Fe2Si2Al9) is formed, while when iron is larger than silicon, the phase of alpha-Fe2SiAl8 (or Fe3Si2Al12) is formed. When the ratio of iron to silicon is not appropriate, cracks will occur in the castings. When the iron content in the cast aluminum is too high, brittleness will occur in the castings.
  7、金屬元素:鈦和硼的影響
  7. Metal Elements: Effects of Titanium and Boron鈦是鋁合金中常用的添加元素,以Al-Ti或Al-Ti-B中間合金形式加入。鈦與鋁形成TiAl2相,成為結晶時的非自發核心,起細化鍛造組織和焊縫組織的作用。Al-Ti系合金產生包反應時,鈦的臨界含量約為0.15%,假如有硼存在則減速小到0.01%。
  Titanium is a common addition element in aluminium alloys, which is added in the form of Al-Ti or Al-Ti-B master alloys. TiAl2 phase is formed between titanium and aluminium, which becomes the non-spontaneous core during crystallization and refines the forging structure and weld structure. The critical content of titanium in Al-Ti alloy is about 0.15% when cladding reaction occurs. If boron exists, the reduction is less than 0.01%.
  鉻在鋁板中形成(CrFe)Al7和(CrMn)Al12等金屬間化合物,阻礙再結晶的形核和長大過程,對合金有一定的強化作用,還能改善合金韌性和降低應力侵蝕開裂敏感性。但會場增加淬火敏感性,使陽極氧化膜呈黃色,鉻在鋁合金中的添加量一般不超過0.35%,并隨合金中過渡元素的增加而降低。
  Chromium forms intermetallic compounds (CrFe) Al7 and (CrMn) Al12 in aluminium sheet, which hinder the recrystallization nucleation and growth process. It has a certain strengthening effect on the alloy, and can also improve the toughness and reduce the stress corrosion cracking sensitivity of the alloy. However, with the increase of quenching sensitivity, the anodic oxide film becomes yellow, and the addition of chromium in aluminium alloys generally does not exceed 0.35%, which decreases with the increase of transition elements in the alloys.
  對擠壓用鋁合金中加入0.015%-0.03%鍶,使鑄錠中β-AlFeSi相變成漢字形α-AlFeSi相,減少了鑄錠平均化時間60%-70%,進步材料力學機能和塑性加工性;改善制品表面粗拙度。對于高硅(10%-13%)變形鋁合金中加入0.02%-0.07%鍶元素,可使初晶減少至較低限度,力學機能也明顯進步,抗拉強度бb由233MPa進步到236MPa,屈服強度б0.2由204MPa提高到210MPa,延伸率б5由9%增至12%。在過共晶Al-Si合金中加入鍶,能減小初晶硅粒子尺寸,改善塑性加工機能,可順利地熱軋和冷軋。
  The addition of 0.015%-0.03% strontium to the aluminium alloy for extrusion can change the beta-AlFeSi phase in the ingot into Chinese alpha-AlFeSi phase, reduce the average time of the ingot by 60%-70%, improve the mechanical function and plastic workability of the material, and improve the roughness of the surface of the product. For high silicon (10%-13%) wrought aluminium alloy, adding 0.02%-0.07% strontium element can reduce the primary crystallization to the minimum, and improve the mechanical properties. Tensile strength B increases from 233 MPa to 236 MPa, yield strength 0.2 increases from 204 MPa to 210MPa, and elongation increases from 9% to 12%. The addition of Strontium in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy can reduce the size of primary silicon particles, improve the plastic processing function, and smooth hot and cold rolling.
 

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